LeviCellTM System Enables Macrophage Research


As scientists and researchers working with macrophages in vitro know all too well, the promise of new and powerful insights in science that these key cell types offer come at a price of time, frustration, and challenges in reproducing results.  Mature differentiated macrophages are present in very low numbers in various human tissues, so it is difficult to have enough quantity for the various downstream assays.  Macrophages cannot proliferate in vitro – they need to be isolated and differentiated with specific media. On top of that, macrophages are notoriously sensitive to handling suing tradiitonal methods and techniques.

The LeviCellTM has proven to successfully sort live macrophages with class-leading yields and viabilities – without affecting activation state – for accurate downstream analysis in 20 touch-free, label-free, frustration-free minutes. Furthermore, result reproducibility is maximized because the entire sorting and separation process occurs in the completely closed and controlled environment of the LeviCellTM and involves only 3 simple manual steps (instead of the complex 13-16  step processes of current methods.

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LevitasBio has developed an innovative levitation technology platform that uses less than 1 psi of pressure to enable a completely touch-free, label-free, three-step macrophage sorting process that takes only 20 minutes to complete. Live macrophage populations levitate much higher than dead cells and debris, thus allowing for clear separation and collection by the LeviCellTM, as shown.  Please note that the fluorescent dyes used in the provided image were used solely to highlight the separation process and are not required touse the LeviCellTM.


Sample Introduction

Sample pipetted into the LeviCell™ cartridge.


Automated Label-Free Sorting

Precision density gradients drive levitation based on cells physical properties.


Sample Collection

Selected populations collected into separate ports for further analysis or use.


LeviCellTM enriches for the live macrophage cells

The RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line was used to determine whether the LeviCellTM was gentle on fragile cells such as macrophages.

Cells were harvested from culture (RAW264.7 cells are cultured in DMEM buffered with 10% FBS) and their viability determined by Trypan blue staining. RAW264.7 macrophages were then washed in a levitation agent and immediately introduced into the LeviCellTM.

The starting viability was measured at 21% (green bar). In the LeviCellTM, live cells levitated to the top channel while the dead cells could be found levitating lower. The LeviCellTM sort (black bar) enriched the Live channel to a viability of 98%!

This demonstrates that not only is the LeviCellTM able to enrich live cells, but it is also gentle on the cells, resulting in very little damage to the cells during the sort.

LeviCellTM maintains macrophages’ polarization state

After demonstrating that the LeviCellTM could enrich for live macrophage populations, we tested the LeviCellTM’s ability to sort macrophages without affecting their activation states.

Macrophages can be polarized into two main states: M1 and M2. M1 macrophages are pro-inflammatory and characterized by the production of enzymes such as iNOS and cytokines like IL-12. M2 macrophages are anti-inflammatory and express intermediates such as Arg1 and produce IL-10.

To generate M1 and M2 macrophages, J774 mouse macrophage cell line (cultured in DMEM buffered with 10% FBS) was treated with IFN-𝞬 (50ng/mL) and IL-4 (20ng/mL) respectively for 24h. Untreated macrophages (M0) were kept as control. The starting viability of the J774 cells going into the LeviCellTM was 20% for each polarization state.

We observed an enrichment to 88-100% viability post-LeviCellTM sort. We took a step further and performed qRT-PCR, looking at the expression of genes indicative of the M1 (iNOS) and M2 (Arg1) states in these cells to show that their activation states were not compromised by the LeviCellTM sort.

No differences in gene expression were observed between the input and output cells for all the activation states. This shows that the LeviCellTM sort is gentle enough to sort macrophages without affecting their polarization states, thus working as a powerful tool for studying the functionality of these cells.


Various sorting methods and techniques for sensitive cell types such as macrophages typically take a researcher with a high level of expertise several hours to conduct. Traditionally, this involves a tedious, manual workflow that often results in low yield, damaged cells, and low viability. 

The LeviCellTM’s 3-step, hands- and label-free platform enables the enrichment of fragile cell types while maintaining their gene expression and original sample representation for accurate downstream analysis. Faster, easier, fewer losses, high viability, no debris – all in 20 minutes.